What do you understand by the term heritability? Describe various ways of estimating heritability in animal breeding. Give heritability for traits of economic importance in horse, camel and backyard poultry. Also suggest ways of improving lowly heritable traits in livestock. Describe and compare the main groups of junctional complexes. Draw their structures – with modes of attachment to the cell membrane, note the differences between each, the main function(s) of each, and describe where each routinely appears. • Junctions contain cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) that are classified into four major families. Do not try to memorize this list – just become familiar with the main groups so you will recognize future discussions and classes.

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