What depends on the energy gain in the substrate level phosphorylation step in the Citrate Cycle; a) thioester bond of succinyl COA b) oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to O-ketoglutarata c) Citrate formation from oxalacettate and acetyl COA d) FAD-linked oxidation of succinate to fumarate e) Phosphoanhydride bond of 1,3 bisphosphoglycerate 2- Which enzyme is specific for gluconeogenesis in animals? a) enolase b) phosphoglyceromutase c) glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate dehydrogenase d) aldolase e) fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase 3- By what cycle do 4, 5 and 7 carbon carbohydrates catabolize in mammalian systems? a) Gluconeogenesis b) Oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway c) Non-oxidative phase of the Pentose Phosphate Pathway d) Glyoxylate pathway e) 4, 5 and 7 carbohydrates are catabolized only in bacterial systems.Briefly explain how fat molecules (triacylglycerol) are digested, absorbed and transported in the human body, respectively.

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