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Quality of life (QoL) of patients with Strabismus
Individuals with Strabismus face most commonly visual impairment. Visual impairments may affect the ability to read, make judgments, detect consequences of visual stimuli, and perceive the visual environment and tasks required for a particular activity. Spatial vision is an integral part of perceptual and cognitive function. It overall impacts the efficiency of individuals dealing with the disease. The researcher will emphasize the secondary resources to conduct information on the QoL of patients with strabismus in Saudi Arabia. The data analysis will be conducted using thematic analysis, where different categories and themes will be derived from the content.
Despite the increased studies focusing on the diagnosis, treatment, and interventions of Strabismus, limited research is conducted on the quality of life (QoL) of patients suffering from the disease (3). Strabismus is a severe visual disorder where the optic nerve is stretched in both eyes, challenging to align vision. About 10% of individuals suffering from the disease have permanent vision loss (4). Treatment of the anatomical can cause Incision of the orbit, using either incisional, wedge, or suction procedures (1). Patients with strabismus have increased anxiety and social problems, which can decrease their quality of life.
The research aims to analyze the impact of patients’ quality of life with Strabismus in Saudi Arabia. There are limited such studies conducted in the Saudi Arabian region, and, however, the researcher will rely on the studies conducted in the region from 2010 on the Quality of life of patients with Strabismus. These studies would provide recommendations in improving the quality of life of patients dealing with Strabismus. The research objectives are:
* To determine the impact of Quality of life of patients with Strabismus in Saudi Arabia
* To recommend Saudi government and clinical practitioners to improve patients’ quality of life with Strabismus by conducting secondary research.
Literature Review
QoL of an individual is the appraisal of the physiological, mental, and social aspects of one’s life and an individual’s perception of his/her quality of life. An eye misalignment, also known as presbycusis, is usually due to structural deformities (strokes, tumors, etc.) (5). Al-Wadaani stated that the most common cause is multiple myeloma. About 50% of people with multiple myeloma develop glaucoma, and in such cases, eye development cannot be restored (2). Al Jabri et al. said that a consistent technique for measuring strabismus is viewing an image of one eye while the patient turns the other 90° clockwise or counterclockwise and comparing the images (1).
Due to the double burden of disease, patients may experience impairment of Visual Function (diplopia, double vision, etc.), Anterior Segmental Schizencephaly (ISSS), Hyper- or hypo-salivation Cognitive dysfunction (depression, brain fog). Medications can also have adverse effects and may make the patient experience orthostatic hypotension. Inappropriate positioning and gaze misalignment may cause the brain to interpret vision inaccurately (6). Behavioral and social consequences can have a negative impact on patients’ ability to participate in educational, vocational, professional, and social activities.
More than 50% of patients with strabismus have difficulty sleeping, and, therefore, these patients are at increased risk for hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Patients with significant degrees of the most severe form of strabismus (doubled closed) have normal vision, leading to questions regarding the definition of strabismus (4). The key factors in treatment include intervention and rehabilitation techniques, surgical interventions and cataract surgery, occlusion of the misplaced eye, and revision of the misaligned eye after surgical outcomes (2). A cataract is the most effective treatment, followed by surgical intervention (5). No guaranteed treatment is available; however, this has been limited to particular and rare cases due to cost, time limitations, and the absence of clinical understanding of the disease (3). Pharmacological therapies are an option in strabismus where there are no other surgical treatment options or treatment options that have failed.
The researcher has chosen the secondary research approach to collect the information. Secondary research is used to obtain secondary data available in different reports published in Saudi Arabian newspapers, interviews of patients in YouTube or TV channels, or peer-reviewed journals. It is different from primary research, where the researchers send emails or letters to the desired company, organization, or person and ask them to provide the relevant information. The researcher has chosen the secondary research because, due to COVID-19, the health practitioners in Saudi Arabia do not participate in face-to-face surveys. Another reason for choosing the secondary research is that it offers several advantages, such as generating accurate results from data taken from existing journal articles because this method provides clients with cost-effective services. Peer-reviewed articles are selected for cross-checking for discussion. The reason is that these articles are approved after a thorough discussion with experts in the field. The articles considered will be from 2010 onwards, so the research results are up-to-date.
To analyze their quality of life, the researcher will rely on different types of previously published research, i.e., qualitative and quantitative research and different reports and videos published on such patients dealing with how the impairment has eroded the quality of their lives. A few measures of QOL can be social interactions, relations, psychological functioning, and the ability to perform daily activities. For analysis purposes, the focus will be on the thematic analysis, where the researcher will derive different categories and align them in different themes to make the findings comprehen