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Table of Contents TOC o “1-3” h z u Chapter One: Introduction PAGEREF _Toc30946031 h 4Background Information PAGEREF _Toc30946032 h 4Preschool enrolment PAGEREF _Toc30946033 h 5Research Objectives PAGEREF _Toc30946034 h 6Research Question PAGEREF _Toc30946035 h 6Problem Statement PAGEREF _Toc30946036 h 6Justification PAGEREF _Toc30946037 h 6Scope and Context of Research PAGEREF _Toc30946038 h 9Definition of Terms PAGEREF _Toc30946039 h 9Executive function (EF) PAGEREF _Toc30946040 h 9Preschoolers PAGEREF _Toc30946041 h 9Early elementary years PAGEREF _Toc30946042 h 9Cognitive and behavioral skills PAGEREF _Toc30946043 h 9Chapter Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc30946044 h 10Chapter Two: Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc30946045 h 11Introduction PAGEREF _Toc30946046 h 11Theory of Mind Development and Heightening Cognitive Development among Preschoolers PAGEREF _Toc30946047 h 11Bronfenbrenner Theory PAGEREF _Toc30946048 h 13Justification of the theory PAGEREF _Toc30946049 h 13The role of moderating factors PAGEREF _Toc30946050 h 17Parental education, parental behaviors, familyism, and heightening of cognitive and behavioral skills among preschoolers PAGEREF _Toc30946051 h 17Parent-teacher partnerships and emerging threats to parent-child relationships PAGEREF _Toc30946052 h 20Gaps in Research PAGEREF _Toc30946053 h 22Chapter Three: Research Methods PAGEREF _Toc30946054 h 23Introduction PAGEREF _Toc30946055 h 23Sampling Method PAGEREF _Toc30946056 h 23Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria and Data Collection PAGEREF _Toc30946057 h 24Participant Recruitment PAGEREF _Toc30946058 h 25Data Collection PAGEREF _Toc30946059 h 26Data Analysis PAGEREF _Toc30946060 h 26Ethical Considerations PAGEREF _Toc30946061 h 27Benefits and Limitations of the Research Methodology PAGEREF _Toc30946062 h 29Benefits PAGEREF _Toc30946063 h 29Limitations PAGEREF _Toc30946064 h 29Credibility and validity of the research PAGEREF _Toc30946065 h 30Chapter Four: Results and Discussion PAGEREF _Toc30946066 h 31Introduction PAGEREF _Toc30946067 h 31Findings PAGEREF _Toc30946068 h 31Discussion PAGEREF _Toc30946069 h 32Chapter Five: Conclusion and Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc30946070 h 40Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc30946071 h 40Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc30946072 h 42References PAGEREF _Toc30946073 h 44Appendices PAGEREF _Toc30946074 h 52Appendix 1: Questionnaire PAGEREF _Toc30946075 h 52Appendix 2. Table 1. Link between the styles of parenting styles as well as the behavioral patterns of preschoolers PAGEREF _Toc30946076 h 56Appendix 3. Table 2. Preschooler enrolment patterns PAGEREF _Toc30946077 h 57Appendix 4. Table 4: An overview of the major themes and findings obtained in the study PAGEREF _Toc30946078 h 59
Chapter One: Introduction
Background Information
The present research purposed to investigate the role of early childhood educators, parents, and other stakeholders on the learning behaviors of preschoolers and children in the early elementary years. In addition, the efficacy of parent-teacher partnerships in mediating learning was explored. Preschoolers and pupils in the early elementary (3-8 years) were a population of interest due to the following reasons. First, psychological research has established that learning among these children has lifelong implications in line with the theory of mind development ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:[{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1037/a0023899″,”ISBN”:”0012-1649\r1939-0599″,”ISSN”:”00121649″,”PMID”:”21639620″,”abstract”:”To examine cultural contrasts in the ordered sequence of conceptual developments leading to theory of mind (ToM), we compared 135 3- to 6-year-olds (77 Australians; 58 Iranians) on an established 5-step ToM scale (Wellman & Liu, 2004). There was a cross-cultural difference in the sequencing of ToM steps but not in overall rates of ToM mastery. In line with our predictions, the children from Iran conformed to a distinctive sequence previously observed only in children in China. In contrast to the case with children from Australia (and the United States), knowledge access was understood earlier than opinion diversity in children from Iran, consistent with this collectivist culture’s emphasis on filial respect, dispute avoidance, and acquiring knowledge. Having a sibling was linked with faster overall ToM progress in Australia only and was not related to scale sequences in either culture. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).”,”author”:[{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Shahaeian”,”given”:”Ameneh”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Peterson”,”given”:”Candida C.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Slaughter”,”given”:”Virginia”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Wellman”,”given”:”Henry M.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””}],”container-title”:”Developmental Psychology”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”5″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:[[“2011″]]},”page”:”1239-1247″,”title”:”Culture and the Sequence of Steps in Theory of Mind Development”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”47″},”uris”:[“http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=cf6d9f0d-1128-461f-9276-bdd8612ae20e”]}],”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Shahaeian et al., 2011)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Shahaeian et al., 2011)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Shahaeian et al., 2011)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Shahaeian et al., 2011). Second, children in this age group conceptualize the world around them based on positive or negative parent-child attachment ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:[{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1017/S0954579409990344″,”ISBN”:”1469-2198(Electronic);0954-5794(Print)”,”ISSN”:”09545794″,”PMID”:”20102655″,”abstract”:”The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the theory and evidence for the links of parent-child attachment with internalizing problems in childhood and adolescence. We address three key questions: (a) how consistent is the evidence that attachment security or insecurity is linked to internalizing symptoms, anxiety, and depression? (b) How consistent is the evidence that specific forms of insecurity are more strongly related to internalizing symptoms, anxiety, and depression than are other forms of insecurity? (c) Are associations with internalizing symptoms, anxiety, and depression consistent for mother-child and father-child attachment? The current findings are consistent with the hypothesis that insecure attachment is associated with the development of internalizing problems. The links between specific insecure attachment patterns and internalizing problems are difficult to evaluate. Father-child and mother-child attachments have a comparable impact, although there are relatively few studies of father-child attachment. No moderators consistently affect these relations. We also propose two models of how attachment insecurity may combine with other factors to lead to anxiety or depression.”,”author”:[{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Brumariu”,”given”:”Laura E.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Kerns”,”given”:”Kathryn A.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””}],”container-title”:”Development and Psychopathology”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:[[“2010″]]},”page”:”177-203″,”title”:”Parent-child attachment and internalizing symptoms in childhood and adolescence: A review of empirical findings and future directions”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”22″},”uris”:[“http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=21e79cb2-2a05-447e-a58f-e0f744435f9c”]},{“id”:”ITEM-2″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1348/026151008X400445″,”ISBN”:”0261-510X”,”ISSN”:”0261510X”,”PMID”:”19972662″,”abstract”:”Educational media serve as informal educators within the home by supplementing young children’s development. Substantial evidence documents the contributions of educational television to preschoolers’ acquisition of a variety of skills; however, television’s natural capacity as storyteller and the role it plays in preschoolers’ early literacy development has been largely overlooked. This study examined the effects of viewing different TV program types on 311 at-risk preschoolers’ story knowledge and narrative skills. Children were assigned to one of 4 viewing conditions (i.e. watching up to 40 episodes of a particular program type): no viewing; expository; embedded narrative; or traditional narrative. Story knowledge scores were higher for those viewing either narrative type. In contrast, viewing specific narrative types differentially affected the component skills of narrative competence. Story retelling and identification of explicit story events were higher after repeat viewing of embedded narratives while generating implicit story content was higher after repeat viewing of traditional narratives.”,”author”:[{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Linebarger”,”given”:”Deborah L.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Piotrowski”,”given”:”Jessica Taylor”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””}],”container-title”:”British Journal of Developmental Psychology”,”id”:”ITEM-2″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:[[“2009″]]},”page”:”47-69″,”title”:”TV as storyteller: How exposure to television narratives impacts at-risk preschoolers’ story knowledge and narrative skills”,”type”:…