Contents TOC o “1-3” h z u 1CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc48804917 h 41.1Introduction PAGEREF _Toc48804918 h 41.2Problem statement PAGEREF _Toc48804919 h 41.3Research Aim & Objectives PAGEREF _Toc48804920 h 51.3.1Aim PAGEREF _Toc48804921 h 51.3.2objectives of this study: PAGEREF _Toc48804922 h 51.4significance of the study PAGEREF _Toc48804924 h 52CHAPTER TWO: LITRATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc48804925 h 62.1Introduction PAGEREF _Toc48804926 h 62.2Brief Background PAGEREF _Toc48804927 h 62.3Introduction of programing in primary schools and its effects PAGEREF _Toc48804928 h 82.4Views on programming by primary school computer teachers PAGEREF _Toc48804929 h 102.5Programming content available for primary schools PAGEREF _Toc48804930 h 123CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc48804931 h 143.1Methodology PAGEREF _Toc48804932 h 143.1.1Introduction PAGEREF _Toc48804933 h 143.1.2Research instrument and design PAGEREF _Toc48804934 h 153.1.3Data collection PAGEREF _Toc48804935 h 173.1.4Research ethics PAGEREF _Toc48804936 h 193.1.5Summary PAGEREF _Toc48804937 h 193.2Project Plan PAGEREF _Toc48804938 h 194CHAPTER FOUR: CRITIQUE OF PREVIOUS A JOURNAL ARTICLE PAGEREF _Toc48804939 h 204.1Critique of previous a journal article PAGEREF _Toc48804940 h 204.1.1Introduction PAGEREF _Toc48804941 h 204.1.2Clarity of focus and context PAGEREF _Toc48804942 h 204.1.3Engagement with the literature PAGEREF _Toc48804943 h 214.1.4Methodology and implementation PAGEREF _Toc48804944 h 214.1.5Data handling and analysis PAGEREF _Toc48804945 h 214.1.6Relating research to objectives PAGEREF _Toc48804946 h 214.1.7Additional, detailed comments PAGEREF _Toc48804947 h 225CHAPTER FIVE: IMPLEMENTATION OF METHOD AND ANALYSIS OUTLINE PAGEREF _Toc48804948 h 225.1Implementation of method and analysis outline PAGEREF _Toc48804949 h 225.1.1Planned use of questionnaire PAGEREF _Toc48804950 h 236CHAPTER SIX: EVALUATION & REFLECTION PAGEREF _Toc48804951 h 276.1Evaluation & reflection PAGEREF _Toc48804952 h 277CHAPTER SEVEN: REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc48804953 h 307.1References PAGEREF _Toc48804954 h 30
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Rapid development of information technology has made use of computers penetrate into every field of daily life. In the 21st Cc, se of the word technology has become importance in all fields including education. In most developed and developing counties, technology has been used as the mode of knowledge transfer and thus has transformed the way people think, live, and work. This has shown its importance and need for introduction at the early stages of life. In addition, schools and other education institutions should consider integration into their curriculum. Wing (2006) claims that computer programming fits everyone and that programming could help people in designing systems, solving problems and understanding human behavior (Wing, 2006). As such, students would need the skills at every stage of their lives. However, there has been a lot of challenges introducing programming at the early stages of student life. Despite research showing possible positive of adopting the process, the rates have remained relatively low at 23% (Tuomi, et al 2018).
Learning programming and developing computational thinking enables us to communicate and collaborate better with computers (Papadakis, Kalogiannakis & Zaranis, 2016). Programming became popular in 2006 (Wing, 2006) although its original definition was put forward earlier by Papert (1996). Since then, developments aimed at ensuring positive effect on students have been advanced. However, little has been achieved (33%). Studies have showed that there are other issues besides students although have not been empirically evaluated (Tuomi, et al 2018). Thus, the proposed study is seeking to work towards advancing knowledge of Primary school computer teachers? view on early programming education curriculum. Currently there exists no legislation which format the platform through which the Primary school computer teachers? further enable programming education curriculum which the current anlaysis seeks to achieve.
Learning and integration of ICT into the curriculum incorporates computer based trainigs as well as classroom sessions, and thus making teachers key players in the integration process. In addition, it related to technology based traning in schools which has an impact on students, as well as resource utilization. To be able to achieve this, teachers need to understand as well as accepted the techn,ogical changes that come about. Studies have recognized that learning of all subjects can be eased theorugh technological advancement. However, ther is a great challenge that has possed schools as they try to implement the program in the curriculum.
Problem statement
Teaching computer programming has been a great challenge for years particular for beginners (Fantilli, & McDougall, 2009). It has been characterized with a lot of resistance from teachers, parents, and students who have been having fears of the unknown, as well as change (Wing, 2006). In addition, computer teachers have seen many problems implementing it (Tuomi, et al 2018). One of the major issues has been wrong perceived attitude among teachers (Papert, 1996). Thus, past studies despite recognition of the big role the computer teachers would play in the introduction process, there is very scanty literature that has tried to address the issue. In addition, none of the studies have tried to bring out the attitude towards programming among teachers with a lot of focus on adoption and its effect on student performance (Wing, 2006). Besides, a lot of studies have exluded the role teachers would play in any adoption process and only look at the students as the major player (Papadakis, Kalogiannakis & Zaranis, 2016). Therefore, this paper explores the views of primary school teachers on introduction of programming curricula in primary school and how their attitude affects its introduction.
Research Aim & Objectives
The aim of this study is to analyse primary school computer teachers’ views on early programming education curriculum
objectives of this study:
* To characterize programming in New Zealand, UK, Singapore, Australia, US and China primary schools.
* To assess the attitude of primary school computer teachers towards introduction of programming curricula for children aged 3-14.
* To assess the effect of the teachers attitude on introduction of programming in primary schools.
significance of the study
This study will be of importance to a wide range of audience. First, the results that characterize programming as erll as teachers attitude will be of importance to the curriculum developers. This is because they will develop curriculum that incorporates teachers thought and thus mae implementation easy. Secondly, the resulst on the effect of teachers attitude introduction of the curriculum will be of importance to policy makers, government, and educational institutions. They will make use of the results as they will nature negative attitudes to develop a curriculum that ios policy oriented as well as one that ensures optimal resource usage. Finally, the results of the study will be useful to researchers who will make use of the results as a reference point for future studies.
Technological advancements from the late 19th Cc has been growing rapidly. In the advent of advancement in artifiacial inteligence as well as internet of things, programming becomes very important making its need crucial especially for children in their early development. For instance, the initative has been welcomed in Estonia in 2012, UK made the initiative in 2014 and the US introduced a programmer called ?hour of code?, driven by both Microsoft and goggle to ensure that all students earn programming skills in the country (Raagmaa, Kalvet, & Kasesalu, 2014). In this chapter, we will review previous studies based on our study objectives.
Brief Background
Csizmadia et al, 2015 found introduction of programming within UK schools necessary. The curriculum put forward divided programming in primary schools into: algorithmic thinking, abstraction, evaluation and generalization. Many studies have in the recent past been conducted on implementation of this curricula in primary schools (Webb & Rosson, 2013; Sengupta et al, 2012; Lee et al, 2011; Selby, 2012, Barr & Stephenson, 2011). However, they have looked at implementation from the students point of view with none assessing teachers…