Management is an ability of receiving things done through individuals. It is the procedure arranging, sorting out, driving and controlling the endeavors of association individuals and of utilizing all other authoritative assets to accomplish expressed hierarchical objectives.
Institutional management is defined in terms of functions undertaken by the manager in an integrated way to achieve organizational purposes. Institutional management is a management framework, which is school-based, student-centered and quality-focused for the purpose of academic performance because the school management and academic performance are closely related with each other and management strategies have a great impact on the academic performance of the students.
The rough the devolution of responsibilities, schools are provided with enhanced flexibility and autonomy in managing their own operation and resources for school development so as to develop an environment that facilitates continuous improvement in the academic performance of the student.
1The principal’s leadership is crucial to the academic performance of learners. It determines the quality of learner performance. The principal has to ensure that he adopts a style of leadership that can elicit performance of a high standard from learners. A high standard of performance is necessary because the effectiveness of the school principal’s leadership is measured by the academic success of the learners. This measurement is an indication of the importance stakeholders in education attach to examination results.
Recognize the importance attached to examination results and say:”Many parents and other citizens, government policy makers and scholars define organizational effectiveness narrowly; they equate school effectiveness with academic achievement.”Educators and the general public have time and again expressed concern over factors that influence student performance in examinations. The most outstanding factor has to do with the organizational management of schools.
Hoy andMiskel (1996)Performance principal are required first to improve the management of the schools. This can be done by setting a clear vision for the schools and communicate this vision to students, support its achievement by giving instructional leadership, provision of resources and being visible in every part of the institution.
Wekesa (1993) in a school set up, management practices refer to the way a school principal uses the human resources and other resources and promotes. They also refer to methods or techniques found to be the best effective and practical means in achieving an objective while making the optimum use of its firm?s resource.
Holmes (2000) Studies conducted in U.S by Marvel and Morton (2006) identified the principal as the single most influential person in a school. He/she is the person responsible for all activities that occur in and around the school building. It is the principals? management practices that set the tone of the school, the climate for teaching, the level of professionalism, the morale of teachers and the degree of concern for what students may or may not become. The principal is the main link between the community and the school and the way he/she performs in this capacity largely determines the attitudes of parents and students about the school.
Seashore and Leithhood (2010) observed that if a school is vibrant, innovative and child cantered, if it has a reputation for excellence in teaching, if the students are performing well, one can almost always point to the principals ?management practices as key to success.
Karen and Kenneth (2004) believe that principals perform among other key functions shaping a vision of academic success for all students, creating a climate hospitable to education, cultivating leadership in others, improving instruction, managing people, and data processes to foster school improvement.
Today, improving school managementpositionfar above the ground on the record of priorities for school reforms; a complete 2010 survey by Wallace foundation found principals? leadership as among the most pressing matters on a list of issues in public school education. Although in any school, a range of leadership patterns exist among principals, assistant principals, teachers and parents, the principal remains the central source of leadership influence in a school Andrews (2008).
A report by South African National Task Team on Education and Culture (NOoE, 1996: 8) states that the task of management at all levels in the education system is ultimately the creation and support of conditions under which educators and their learners are able to achieve effective teaching and learning.
The report also argues that the extent, to which effective learning is achieved, therefore, becomes the criterion against which the quality of management is to be measured. From the report, it may be deduced that good management practices coupled with sustained development and effective structures, systems and procedures are likely to lead to an improved culture of teaching and learning and ultimately improvement of academic performance. It can be argued, that effective teaching and learning in the school depends on its leadership and the way human resources are managed. These resources include the principal and his deputy, heads of departments, class educators, learning area educators, class representatives and learners.
The South African Schools Act No. 84 of 1996 encourages the involvement of learners in their own education through the introduction of learner representative councils at secondary school level. This raises challenges for many principals and educators who are accustomed to the traditional methods of strict supervision and control of learners who in the past have had too little or no voice in the organization of their education.
1.1 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1) To identify the process of institutional management.
2) To identify the academic performance of students.
3) To identify the relationship between institutional management and academic performance of students.
1.2 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is concern to increase student?s academic performance. The main focus on Institutional Management which will influence student performance and create best environment in which facilitate student learning and engage students in activities. The study will be helpful for the policy makers. It will be helpful for teachersandstudents both to improve the student?s academic performance. Institutional management is helpful for the professional growth of teachers to concentrate the improvement on academic performance of students. It will help out the institutional management and effect on academic performance of students.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Management of the educational institutions is a collective administrative arrangement to operate an educational organization. Schools are connected to the society hence they are affected by the happenings in a society. Technological advancements, changes in a population, political shifts, ups and downs in economics, and sociological modifications impact the functioning of a school directly.
According to Malik, N. A. (2008, p.1), ?the school management is an operational procedure consisting of planning, organizing, controlling and evaluating the performance of students, academic and nonacademic staff. It is a process of allocate resources and attainment of maximum objectives by utilizing of minimum resources. Management of the school is the double method to grow socially fancied learning encounters for kids and youth by utilizing individual and gathering force of school and group.
6Three phases are there, which are mostly critical to work successfully and efficiently for any system of education. Planning phase at first stage, involves basic problem to educate the society and aspirations of the community to achieve the aims, goals of education. In the field of administration the planning phase is deal with policies formation at the top level. Secondly, no organization can plan work efficiently till the institution is sound, and all aspects of the plan is formulated after giving watchful consideration. School management has effective characteristics which focused on four dimensions of strategic leadership, school climate, environment and restructuring of program.
In this way, school-based management (SBM) is a latest and progressively more popular idea of the transferprocedure in the education system around the world .(Robertson and Briggs, 1998). The idea of SBM was an aftereffect of the emergency steaming from the flexibility and control structure that exist in the educational system. With the trust that SBM will enhance the capability of schools bringing about numerous nations tries it, including Malaysia.It is assumed that this change will improve the output of schools, school efficiency and improve academic performance of students.(Odden and Wohlstetler, 1995). In adding up role, accountability and influence of principals and teachers both will increase school better than the traditional way by their management and administration.
This definitely implies extra workload, and even risk management and authoritative responsibility of principals and instructors (teachers). In reliable with this, in term of implementation , teachers are to be motivated that they design outline of educational programs, selecting teaching and learning materials , also enthusiastically and effectively take an interest in planning and decision making of scho…