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Belanger, S., Andrews, A., Gray, C., &Korczak, D. (2018). ADHD in children and youth: Etiology, diagnosis, and comorbidity. Paediatrics and Child Health, 23(7) 447-453. Retrieved fromhttps://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/0591/ebb8aa972bd2449c1aa3c6ab9d5adee8292b.pdf
This article defines attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by a continuous pattern of inattention that affects the functioning of a person. According to Belanger, Andrews, Gray, &Korczak (2018), ADHD is one of the common psychological disorders in the world alongside depression and anxiety, and it affects approximately 3.4% of children and youth. Multiple factors, including genetic, neurological and environmental factors, have been linked to the development of ADHD. The article has strongly suggested that this disorder is highly hereditary and polygenic. It implies that children can easily acquire the disorder from their parents.
Belanger et al. (2018) have also attributed the pathogenesis of ADHD to non-inherited neurological factors that affect the development of the brain or causes brain injury. Environmentally, exposure of the foetus to alcohol or tobacco is regarded as a risk factor of ADHD. This exposure occurs when pregnant women smoke or consumes alcohol. In the same context, Belanger et al., (2018)have linked ADHD symptoms to environmental toxins like lead, polychlorinated biphenyls and pesticides.
Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (2019). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html