Oligosaccharides as a Tool for Polymer Supported Drug Delivery
Drug delivery research has grown significantly in the recent past. Biodegradable and bio-reducible polymers (from oligosaccharides) are an excellent option for a wide range of new drug carriers. Natural polymers such as chitosan, dextrin, polysaccharides, and acarbose acid have been modified for use in polymeric drug delivery systems. This dissertation addresses the advancements of organic nanocarriers (polymeric micelles and vesicles, liposomes, dendrimers, and hydrogels). For drug delivery, synthetic polymers, dendritic polymers, biodegradable and bio-absorbable polymers have all been investigated. Polymeric drug delivery has also been treated using biomimetic and bio-related polymeric structures, as well as drug-free nanoscale therapeutics. The analysis of nanoparticle drug delivery systems enables the creation of new mechanisms for the efficient delivery and regulated release of therapeutic agents in the severe micro-environment of infected tissues of biological systems, resulting in a diverse variety of functional nano frameworks for smart applications in genomics and nanomedicine. Thus, combining insights from the biological and chemical fields would result in the creation of a new phase for the production of polymeric drug as well as gene delivery mechanisms.
Polymers have recently gained popularity as biomaterials due to their beneficial properties such as high bioactivity, ease of design and preparation, a diverse range of structures, and intriguing bio-mimetic properties. Polymers have played an important role, particularly in the field of smart drug delivery, because they can deliver therapeutic agents directly into the site of action with superior efficacy ADDIN EN.CITE Deng20201(Deng et al., 2020)1117Deng, SiyuanGigliobianco, Maria RosaCensi, RobertaDi Martino, PieraPolymeric nanocapsules as nanotechnological alternative for drug delivery system: current status, challenges and opportunitiesNanomaterialsNanomaterials8471052020(Deng et al., 2020). To achieve the target and subsequent inhibition at a specified rate and time, the appropriate criteria for developing a nano-particulate delivery mechanism are to efficiently handle particle size and morphology attributes, as well as to improve penetrability, adaptability, solubility, and release of potent bioactive agents.
Polymer chemistry advancements in the bio-nanotechnology specialty have enabled the development of smart targeted drug delivery. These breakthroughs in nanostructured materials in drug delivery have recently been discovered in a variety of medical application fields. Excellent drug delivery systems should have characteristics such as instant, pre-scheduled rate, personality, designed to target, pre-determined time, and delivery monitoring ADDIN EN.CITE Bennet20142(Bennet and Kim, 2014, Sung and Kim, 2020)226Bennet, DevasierKim, SanghyoPolymer nanoparticles for smart drug delivery82014chapterSung202033317Sung, Yong KielKim, Sung WanRecent advances in polymeric drug delivery systemsBiomaterials ResearchBiomaterials Research1-1224120202055-7124(Bennet and Kim, 2014, Sung and Kim, 2020). The drug delivery framework advances the therapeutic stage of polymer nanoparticles. Natural, moderately, and synthetic polymeric drug carriers with nano- to micro-scale dimensions are available. Polymeric molecules are also known as spheres and capsules. The majority of surfactant-containing nanoparticles provide consistency for a variety of active drugs and even have a valuable smart release profile ADDIN EN.CITE Sung20203(Sung and Kim, 2020)3317Sung, Yong KielKim, Sung WanRecent advances in polymeric drug delivery systemsBiomaterials ResearchBiomaterials Research1-1224120202055-7124(Sung and Kim, 2020). Various biochemical capabilities for nano-scale to micro-scale sized particles have been identified, including site-targeted, regulated, and enhanced bioavailability of hydrophobic (water-hating) drugs. Because of the size of nanoparticles, drugs have only recently been targeted into a variety of applications, including cancer targeting, which appears to be promising.
Furthermore, polymeric particles demonstrated their efficacy in attempting to stabilize and protect drug components such as proteins, peptides, or DNA molecules from degradation caused by a variety of environmental issues. As a result, these polymers are capable of delivering various proteins and genes. Nanoparticles can be created using a variety of techniques. These methods rely on the physicochemical characteristics of the polymer and active ingredients. Many formulation approaches use processes that can degrade medicinal active compounds, such as organic solvents, temperature, ultrasonication, and mechanical agitation. As a result, the nano-particulate framework is constructed with the understanding that the formulation mechanism has no effect on the active ingredients ADDIN EN.CITE Lombardo20194(Lombardo et al., 2019)4417Lombardo, DomenicoKiselev, Mikhail ACaccamo, Maria TeresaSmart nanoparticles for drug delivery application: development of versatile nanocarrier platforms in biotechnology and nanomedicineJournal of NanomaterialsJournal of Nanomaterials201920191687-4110(Lombardo et al., 2019). For the preparation of smart nanoparticles, many reusable and excellent biocompatibility polymers with various physicochemical properties are available; these polymeric nano-carriers can be natural, semi-synthetic, or synthetic. These nanoparticles have the potential to increase systemic circulation half-life, reduce excessive internalization, and suppress denaturation of the pharmaceutically active functional group, in addition to being used to deliver target substances. Consequently, many polymer systems have been approved for medical use by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ADDIN EN.CITE Chen20165(Chen et al., 2016)5517Chen, ShuoGao, YujuanCao, ZiquanWu, BoWang, LeiWang, HaoDang, ZhiminWang, GuojieNanocomposites of spiropyran-functionalized polymers and upconversion nanoparticles for controlled release stimulated by near-infrared light and pHMacromoleculesMacromolecules7490-7496491920160024-9297(Chen et al., 2016).
It is expected that as fabrication advances keep pace with technological advances, the design and production of drug delivery systems will usher in a new era of improving clinical healthcare. Recent advances in the use of carriers for continuous and targeted delivery, micro and nano designed self-regulating equipment, bio-recognizable mechanisms, and micro-needles for transdermal delivery have demonstrated the versatility and increased penetrability of these polymer composites ADDIN EN.CITE Illum20126(Illum, 2012)6617Illum, LisbethNasal drug delivery?Recent developments and future prospectsJournal of controlled releaseJournal of controlled release254-263161220120168-3659(Illum, 2012). The ultimate goal of oligosaccharides polymer drug delivery is the development of a micro and nano-fabricated subsequent clinical release system capable of storing and releasing a sufficient amount of various active agents on demand.
Micro-electro-mechanical frameworks in digital applications offer a unique opportunity to fabricate micro-fabricated biomaterials for a wide range of applications, from injectable systems to research facility systems. There are numerous advantages to using continuous and extended drug release micro-fabricated systems ADDIN EN.CITE Guterres20077(Guterres et al., 2007)7717Guterres, SĀ”lvia SAlves, Marta PPohlmann, Adriana RPolymeric nanoparticles, nanospheres and nanocapsules, for cutaneous applicationsDrug target insightsDrug target insights117739280700200002220071177-3928(Guterres et al., 2007). Many bioactive compounds can be contained in nano size inside the device and discharged in a sustainable manner, drug release is triggered by physiological responses that breakdown and deteriorate the cytoplasmic membrane barrier, and the most likely drugs can be released quite precisely with this methodology. Furthermore, the micro-fabricated device must accomplish complex release of drug mechanisms including sequential stable and intermittent drug release for local therapy ADDIN EN.CITE Wenk20118(Wenk et al., 2011)8817Wenk, EstherMerkle, Hans PMeinel, LorenzSilk fibroin as a vehicle for drug delivery applicationsJournal of Controlled ReleaseJournal of controlled release128-141150220110168-3659(Wenk et al., 2011); this could accomplish high or low doses of drugs at the desired site and improve drug stabilization by regulating water diffusion into the reservoirs.
This delivery model may be classified into several groups due to the advanced technological complexity of the regulated drug release method that has been established or is currently being developed. There are four types of regulated drug delivery mechanisms: (i) rate-programmed drug delivery, in which drug diffusion from a mechanism follows a specific release rate profile, (ii) conformational changes drug delivery, in which drug release is triggered by various variables such as physical, chemical, electrical, or biochemical modules, and (iii) feedback-regulated nanocarriers, in which the rate of release is defined by metabolic substance (activating agent) thresholds that are directly proportional to the concentration displayed in the target, and (iv) site-targeting drug carriers ADDIN EN.CITE Saraf20109(Saraf, 2010)9917Saraf, SApplications of novel drug delivery system for herbal formulationsFitoterapiaFitoterapia680-68981720100367-326X(Saraf, 2010), which are a comprehensive mechanism that consists of numerous phases of diffusion rate as well as splitting to control the rate of drug re…