Annotated Bibliography – Overrepresentation in Prisons
Annotated Bibliography – Overrepresentation in Prisons
Beck, A. J., & Blumstein, A. (2018). Racial Disproportionality in U.S. State Prisons: Accounting for the Effects of Racial and Ethnic Differences in Criminal Involvement, Arrests, Sentencing, and Time Served. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 34(3), 853–883.
The scholarly journal article affirms that racial discrimination do not only occur in the prisons, but manifest even during prosecution. People of color experience rough and bias sentencing procedures than the majority race (Whites), which the courts usually treat with some level of leniency. Consequently, the people of color usually received very severe sentencing. The justice system has prejudiced the minority groups to a level that their presence in course already affirms their guiltiness. Besides, the maltreatment begin at the point of arrest. African Americans face rough and difficult moments dealing with the police when suspected of any criminal activity. The article gives a clear account and statistics regarding the arrests made in the United States and the disproportionate sentencing and incarceration among people of different races as evident in the prisons.
Frost, N., Freilich, J., & Clear, T. (2009). Contemporary issues in criminal justice policy. Boston: Cengage Learning.
In the contemporary American society, issues of institutionalized racism are still evident, especially in the criminal justice system. The book discloses some of the factors that cause disparity in powerful institutions that embody both the law enforcement and the justice systems. Most of the minority groups, according to the book, are victims of such unequal justice because they are under-represented politically and economically. The authors assert that t offenders of same criminal activity receive different punishments, which usually align to their various ethnic and racial accounts. The minority groups, especially the young African American males usually receive severe prison sentences even on minor offences. The disparity is even evident in the chances of getting a parole or probation period. They usually hail from unfavorable economic backgrounds, yet they get some of the highest fine rates. The minority groups need representation in the political and economic systems to reduce the gap of disparity in law enforcement and criminal justice systems. Concisely, the article explore the causes of unequal treatment of the U.S. citizens before the criminal justice system, its manifestations, and effects on the American people and society.